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Influences of compression cycling skinsuit on energy consumption of amateur male cyclists

Gaby QQ Shi1, Kristina Shin1, Daniel HK Chow2, Jiao Jiao3, BCL So4, Newman Lau5, Claire Chung1 and Kaoru Leung6

1Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
2Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3Dr Stephen Hui Research Centre for Physical Recreation and Wellness, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
4Department of Rehabilitation Science, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
5School of Design, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
6Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparel, Hong Kong, China
Corresponding author:
Kristina Shin, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.
Email: kristina.shin@polyu.edu.hk

Abstract

Energy consumption differences of two cycling garments during short-term cycling were studied. Eleven amateur male cyclists participated in two cycling sessions over two days while wearing a newly designed compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) with stripes simulating kinesio tape, and a conventional compression garment (CG) (control garment). In each session, the participants performed a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences with either the CCS or the CG. Each combination lasted for 30 s. Garment pressure values at the thigh, oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were collected and analyzed. The CCS provided significantly different pressure values (P<0.05) at two front muscles (rectus femoris and vastus lateralis) and one back muscle (biceps femoris) during all three workloads, and at a front middle muscle (vastus medialis) only during low-workload cycling. There was a statistically significant interaction between garment and workload (P<0.05) on VO2 when cycling was done at 120 rpm. The CCS required low VO2 (P<0.05) when the cycling combination of workload and cadence were reversed: either low-workload and high-cadence or high-workload and low-cadence cycling. Simultaneously, the CCS had a significant impact on HR during high-workload cycling (P<0.05). In conclusion, the CCS’s higher compression power at the thigh muscles was found to be effective in energy consumption reduction during short-term cycling with low and high workload.

Keywords

Pressure, physiological effect, oxygen consumption, heart rate

Since their introduction to competitive sports in the 1990s,1 compression garments (CGs) became popular due to their positive effects associated with performance enhancement and quick fatigue recovery. The principle behind the positive effects of the CG was that its gradual pressure improved venous return by artificially increasing the extravascular pressure difference closer to a resting stage,2-4 which accelerated metabolite clearance, oxygenation and vascular load reduction.5 This positive hemodynamic benefited athletes’ performance and recovery.3,6 Hemodynamic changes simultaneously affected the physiological responses during physical activities, especially on oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR). HR was decreased when venous return was improved by the CG during intense exercise3 and was linearly related to energy expenditure and VO2 during dynamic activities involving large muscles.7–9 The more oxygen an athlete consumed during high-intensity exercise, the more the body generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy in cells. ATP is referred to as the “molecular unit of currency” of intracellular energy, and VO2 is an essential measure of the body’s ability to generate ATP, which is the energy source for muscles during high-intensity exercise. When the exercise becomes intense, the breathing becomes faster and deeper to supply more oxygen to working muscles in order to generate enough ATP to keep moving.10 Thus, decreased VO2 and HR during exercise indicate less energy consumption and more efficient performance in subsequent exercise bouts.11

Research gap

However, previous studies concerning the CG’s impact on the sports performance were contradictory. Some studies found that the CG had a significant influence on cycling performance where compression exerted by the CG could decrease the rate of fatigue by improving the physiological responses (e.g. HR),2,3,5,6,12 whereas others found no significant influence on cycling performance, 4,13–15 VO2 or HR during cycling.2,4,6,12–15 Thus, a further investigation on the CG’s impact on physiological response during cycling was needed. Previous studies predominantly used the lower-body CG including tights, compression stockings and compression calf sleeves whereas the impact of the kneelength one-piece skinsuit was not investigated despite its aerodynamic advantages (e.g. energy saving) that made it popular for professional cycling competition.16,17 Recently, the CG with the kinesio tape concept became popular. Kinesio tape, a therapeutic equipment, has been widely used by athletes for performance enhancement and fatigue recovery since 1981.18 Kinesio tape facilitated muscle elasticity and strength during sports with its soft tissue manipulation, fascia and muscle relaxation, ligament and tendon support, movement rectification and lymphatic fluid circulation.11 It not only strengthened the physical power but also significantly changed the participants’ perception on exertion level during sports.19 An application of adhesive silicone stripes on the CG improved performance during jogging by reducing the energy consumption.20 A direct application of kinesio tape on the CG pants in the same manner as onto the skin improved performance significantly during jumping and isokinetic exercise.21 Although kinesio tape’s positive impact on sports performance brought several CGs with stripes simulating kinesio tape on to the market, its effect on cycling had not been clearly understood.

Research purpose

Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influences of the compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) with stripes simulating kinesio tape on the VO2 and HR and subsequent energy consumption during cycling. It was hypothesized that the CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape would enhance the cycling performance while saving energy during cycling in comparison with the CG. The effect of the newly designed cycling skinsuit with stripes simulating kinesio tape on both physiological responses and pressure changes during cycling at different workloads and cadences was investigated.

Materials and methods

The pressure values of the thigh, VO2 and HR were collected and analyzed by two experiment sessions when either the CCS or the CG was worn with randomized order; each session comprised a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences. The intra-class correlation coefficient and the standard error of measurement were calculated to further determine the reliabilities of HR and VO2 and also the pressure at each condition.

Hypothesis design

A total of three hypotheses were formulated on the basis of previous studies concerning clothing-induced energy consumption differences during cycling.

H1: The CCS would provide higher pressure values to the thigh muscles during static standing and dynamic cycling than the CG.
H2: The CCS would improve physiological responses (i.e. lower VO2 and HR) compared with the CG during all cycling combinations.
H3: The CCS would promote less energy consumption than the CG during all cycling combinations.

In these three hypotheses, it was assumed that the pressure values of thigh muscle groups would be higher when wearing the CCS during both static standing and dynamic cycling; the energy consumption was to be quantified by physiological measurements (VO2 and HR) when wearing the CCS during all cycling combinations.

Participants

Eleven male amateur cyclists (age: (mean±SD) 27.2± 4.4 years; height: 172.3±3.6 cm; body mass: 63.9± 6.7 kg; body mass index: 21.5±1.9 kg/m2) were recruited through an amateur cycling association to participate in this study. They were asked to sign a consent form prior to the experiment after the experiment procedure briefing. Human subject ethics approval was granted by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ethics Committee (HSEARS20180606002). The participants had over 6 years of cycling experience and they did four to five sessions of weekly physical training including cycling which lasted 2–4 h per session.

Participants were invited to a fitness testing session one week prior to the two experiment sessions and were briefed for the experiment procedure. The participants’ body measurements were collected by means of a body scanner and divided into three size groups (small, medium, large) according to height and chest circumference for garment allocation. The participants were required to refrain from drinking caffeine or stimulants for a period of 24 h before they participated in the tests. Either the CCS or the CG was worn with randomized order for each session of the experiment. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer and the saddle height was adjusted to match the height of each subject. Participants were asked to wear the same pair of sport shoes for both sessions. No water or food was supplied during the experiment.

Garments

A CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape was newly designed by the researchers for this study. The experiment garment (the CCS) and the control garment (the CG) were identical except for the stripes simulating kinesio tape. They were a one-piece garment composed of a top with long sleeves and knee-length shorts. The CCS and the CG were made of the same weight knit fabric (218 g/m2, SensitiveVR Fabrics, Eurojersey, Italy) and a double-sided adhesive film (8210 Bidream Light, Framis Italia, Italy) was used to bond the stripes simulating kinesio tape on to the CCS. Both garments were fabricated by a factory. The sew-free technologies (Macpi, Italy) including bonding and lamination were utilized for the garment construction. The CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape and the CG are shown in Figure 1. Patterns of the CCS and the CG were drafted by applying a 20% negative ease on the course direction, which contributed to the compression power.22,23

Table 1 shows the physical properties of the materials used in this study. The uniaxial tensile test was carried out on an INSTROM-4411 tensile test machine (constant-rate-of-extension type) according to ASTM D4964-96. The sample size was set to 50mm wide X 100mm length in loop form.24 The loading and unloading crosshead speed was 500 mm/min. The elastic properties of the test samples were investigated.

Experiment protocol

The controlled laboratory’s ambient temperature and relative humidity were 23°C and 50%, respectively. A Monark cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 894E, Vansbro, Sweden) equipped with a digital speedometer and a 0.5 kg weight basket was used for the experiments. The load was set as zero with the weight basket. The participants changed into the testing garment upon their arrival at the laboratory (Figure 2). The seat height was adjusted by setting the knee flexion at 25° at the dead bottom center of the pedaling stroke.25

The experiment protocol is shown in Figure 3. The participants were asked to sit in a static sitting position for 30 s for the pressure data collection before 5-min warm-up cycling in a bending posture with their elbows leaning on the handlebar at a cadence of 30–40 rpm. After warm-up, the participants performed a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences. The three workloads included low (1 kg), medium (1.5 kg), and high (2 kg) workloads, with a 30-s resting period between each workload. The testing order of the workload for each subject was randomized so as to minimize the possible order effect (e.g. fatigue and familiarization).

During each workload, the subject cycled at four different cadences for 30 s per cadence, which included low cadence of 60 rpm, medium cadence of 80 rpm, and high cadences of 100 rpm and 120 rpm (see Table 2). The subject was requested to keep the pedaling cadence consistent during the test by following the sound of a metronome and the visual signal on the cycle ergometer’s screen.

Figure 1. Technical drawings with details: (a) the compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) and (b) the compression garment (CG).

Figure 2. Experimental garments: (a) the compression cycling skinsuit (CCS) and (b) the compression garment (CG).

Pressure measurement

The garment pressure values were collected by the Tactilus compression sensor system (Sensor Product Inc., USA). Figure 4 shows the pressure sensor locations on the skin of five muscles: rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SemM). RF, VL and VM are the front upper thigh muscles. BF and SemM are the back upper thigh muscles. All the selected muscles were the known prime muscles for cycling according to previous studies.26,27 The intra-class correlation coefficients for pressure measurements were between 0.85 and 0.92 by single measurements with 95% confidence interval.

The pressure data were collected from two settings: (a) a 30-s static sitting before warm-up and (b) a set of 12 short-term cycling combinations of three workloads and four cadences. Each combination lasted for 30 s. Pressure values were collected at a rate of 60 frames per second. Mean peak pressure values were calculated and used for statistical analysis.

Figure 3. Experiment protocol.


Figure 4. Sensor locations on the skin.
BF: biceps femoris; RF: rectus femoris; SemM: semimembranosus;
VL: vastus lateralis; VM: vastus medialis.

Physiological measurement and equipment

A cardiopulmonary exercise test system (COSMED® Quark CPET, Rome, Italy) was used to analyze the expired breath (oxygen and carbon dioxide), which was calibrated before each test according to the manufacturer’s instructions; the turbine flowmeter was calibrated by using a 3-L syringe. VO2 data were continuously recorded. HR was continuously monitored and recorded at a frequency of 1Hz by a HR sensor (Polar H10, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). Mean VO2 and HR values of each combination of workload and cadence were calculated for statistical analysis.2,28 The intra-class correlation coefficients for HR and VO2 were 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, by single measurements with 95% confidence interval.

Statistical analyses

SPSS software (SPSS Statistics IBM, Version 20.0) was used to test for statistical significance. A 2 (garment) X 3 (workload) factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) with two-way repeated measures was employed to examine their effects on pressure value, VO2 and HR at four different cadences (60 rpm, 80 rpm, 100 rpm and 120 rpm). Statistical significance was set at P<0.05, and a significant level of P<0.001 was also indicated in the related figures and tables. If significance was found, post hoc testing with least significant difference was employed to identify the difference between conditions. Effect size was quantified by using partial eta squared (ηp2).29 All the data were presented as mean and standard deviation (SD) (i.e. mean (SD)).

Results

Pressure measurements during static sitting

Figure 5 shows the pressure values of the CCS and the CG that were measured in the static sitting posture. Statistical analysis showed pressure values of RF, VL, VM and BF were significantly higher when wearing the CCS. However, no significant difference was found between garments at SemM.

Pressure value comparisons between the two garments (CCS versus CG) at each muscle were RF (3.5 (1.5) versus 2.9 (1.4) mmHg, P = 0.001); VL (4.0 (1.7) versus 3.6 (1.8) mmHg, P = 0.001); VM (1.3 (0.6) versus 0.7 (0.6) mmHg, P = 0.000); BF (2.0 (1.3) versus 1.5 (1.2)mmHg, P = 0.013); and SemM (1.1 (1.2) versus 0.7 (0.6) mmHg, P = 0.106).

Pressure measurements during cycling

According to the results of two-way repeated measures ANOVA, the factors of garment and workload have a significant interaction effect on the BF’s pressure values at 80 rpm (F(2,20) = 4.087, P = 0.032, ηp2 = 0.290), at 100 rpm (F(2,20) = 11.581, P = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.537) and at 120 rpm (F(2,20) = 9.817, P = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.495), whereas there was no significant interaction effect on the pressure values for other muscles (P>0.05). The CCS provided significantly higher pressure values than the CG on three muscles (RF, VL and BF) (P<0.05) during all three cycling workloads whereas VM (P<0.05) showed significantly higher pressure values only during low-workload cycling (see Table 3).

Figure 5. Pressure values with two garments in static sitting posture.
*P<0.05, **P<0.001 (CCS compared with CG).
BF: biceps femoris; CCS: compressing cycling skinsuit;
CG: compression garment; RF: rectus femoris; SemM: semimembranosus;
VL: vastus lateralis; VM: vastus medialis.

Figures 6–10 show the post hoc results of pressure values of the CCS and the CG during different combinations of workload and cadence. Regardless of cadence during the three workloads, the CCS provided significantly higher pressure values to the front upper thigh muscles RF (P<0.05) (Figure 6) and VL (P<0.05, except for medium workload at 100 rpm) (Figure 7), and the back upper thigh muscle BF (P<0.05) (Figure 9). The pressure values of VM (Figure 8) induced by the CCS were significantly higher at 60 and 80 rpm (P<0.05) during lowworkload cycling when compared with pressure values of the CG. However, there was no significant difference in SemM (Figure 10).

Among the five muscles, RF and BF showed bigger pressure value differences between the CCS and the CG. Pressure values of the CCS at RF and BF ranged from 26.4 (14.2) to 32.4 (13.7)mmHg and from 11.8 (8.1) to 20.0 (9.5) mmHg, respectively, during cycling with the three different workloads (see Figures 6 and 9).

VO2 measurements during cycling

Statistical analysis results showed that there was a significant interaction effect of garment and workload on VO2 (mL/kg/min) during cycling at high cadence (120 rpm) (F(2,20) = 6.803, P = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.405).

Mean VO2 values (SD) of all participants wearing the two garments are presented in Figure 11 and Table 4. It was observed that VO2 increased as workload increased at all cadences when wearing either garment. In addition, VO2 increased as cadences increased when cycling with the same workload. The VO2 ranges (CCS versus CG) were the following: (a) with low workload, 18.1–27.8 versus 19.8–33.0; (b) with medium workload, 22.3–33.4 versus 24.3–33.0; and (c) with high workload, 23.7–35.2 versus 27.5–34.8. VO2 was significantly lower when the participants wearing the CCS cycled with low workload at high cadence (100 and 120 rpm) (P<0.05) or cycled with high workload at low cadence (60 rpm) (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference found in other combinations (see Table 4).

HR measurements during cycling

Statistical analysis results showed that there was no significant interaction effect of garment and workload on HR during cycling (P>0.05), whereas CCS had significant influence on HR during high-workload cycling (F(1,10) = 5.959, P = 0.035, ηp2 = 0.373).

Mean HR values (SD) of all participants wearing the two garments are presented in Figure 12 and Table 4. It was observed that HR increased as workload increased at all cadences when wearing either garment. However, HR increment rate slowed down when cycling between medium and high workload. In addition, HR increased as cadences increased when cycling with the same workload. The HR ranges (CCS versus CG) were the following: (a) low workload, 113–138 versus 118–142; (b) medium workload, 128– 148 versus 131–152; and (c) high workload, 124–152 versus 131–157. In particular, the mean HR was around 3% lower when participants wearing the CCS cycled with high workload. HR was significantly lower when the participants wearing the CCS cycled with high workload at all cadences (P<0.05) except that of 120 rpm (see Figure 12).

Figure 6. Pressure values of rectus femoris (RF) with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05, **P<0.001 (CCS compared with CG).
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

Figure 7. Pressure values of vastus lateralis (VL) with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05 (CCS compared with CG).
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

Figure 8. Pressure values of vastus medialis (VM) with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05 (CCS compared with CG).
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

Figure 9. Pressure values of biceps femoris (BF) with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05, **P<0.001 (CCS compared with CG).
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

Discussion

This was the first study to investigate the influences of the CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape on energy consumption during cycling with different workloads at different cadences. In addition, the pressure values of the garment tested were measured during the exercise whereas a majority of studies utilized the pressure value given by the CG manufacturers for the data collection and analysis.

The main finding was that the CCS provided significantly higher pressure to the thigh muscles during both static sitting and cycling compared with the CG, whereas VO2 and HR of participants who wore the CCS were generally lower than those of the CG. This supported H1 and H2 although the pressure values varied.

Unlike previous studies investigating kinesio tape effects,30,31 the locations of the stripes simulating kinesio tape applied on the CCS were strategically decided based on the locations of the major cycling contributing muscles (RF, VL, VM, BF and SemM). The design innovation to provide extra pressure by the stripes simulating kinesio tape to all contributing thigh muscles was proven to be effective in terms of saving energy for the same power output, in particular during the shortterm all-out cycling. It was in line with the previous study’s finding that the activation of both anterior and posterior thigh muscles was an important performance factor for intense cycling.26

Except for SemM, pressure values of RF, VL, VM and BF were significantly increased when the CCS was worn regardless of the cycling intensity. Among the five muscles, RF and BF showed the largest differences of pressure values between the CCS and the CG, which was consistent with the expectation of the CCS’s design innovation. RF required more support from the garment during cycling because the RF muscle had a greater activation of muscle fibers and began to fatigue earlier than the other quadriceps femoris muscles.26 When more support was provided to RF during cycling, the activity of the RF increased, which led RF to generate more power with the same energy.32 In the current study, the CCS provided the highest average pressure value to the RF (27.5 (12.5) mmHg) of all the five muscles. RF’s pressure range was within the most effective range for muscle activation, medium pressures (25.1–32.1 mmHg), which was claimed by previous studies.33,34 Similar to RF, BF was reported to have decreased its activity significantly with the repetition of cycling sprints.35 The reason was that its location (posterior thigh), meant that BF was not easily triggered by the CG during cycling. However, it could be deduced that the CCS might have promoted muscle activities with its significantly increased pressure. Thus, it could be deduced that the CCS’s stripes simulating kinesio tape contributed to RF’s and BF’s muscle activation during cycling.

Figure 10. Pressure values of semimembranosus (SemM) with two garments during cycling.
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment

Differences in pressure values between the CCS and the CG on thigh muscles were also linked to the changes in blood flow. The CCS’s stripes simulating kinesio tape further improved the venous return by providing additional pressure to the CG’s extravascular pressure. When the improved venous return enhanced the stroke volume and cardiac output, VO2 and HR were reduced.3,5 VO2 and HR were used as essential physiological markers to quantify the power output which related to energy consumption during cycling.11 In the study under discussion, a complex relationship between garment condition, power output, workload and cadence emerged; the energy reduction evidenced by reduced VO2 and HR proved the CCS’s impact on stroke volume and cardiac output enhancement. Even though different cycling combinations generated the same power outputs, not all cycling combinations used had have the statistical significance. For instance, in the present study, three cycling combinations (1 kg X 120 rpm, 1.5 kg X 80 rpm, 2 kg X 60 rpm) generated the same power outputs (58.8 W) but only two cycling combinations, the low workload with high cadence (1 kg X 120 rpm) and the high workload with low cadence (2 kg X 60 rpm), showed statistical significance in VO2. According to the participants, it was harder to maintain the consistent cadence control when cycling with low workload at high cadence or high workload at low cadence than other cycling combinations. This was in line with the findings of other studies, which indicated that the participants became tired more quickly when they cycled with high workload at lower cadence.36

Figure 11. Oxygen consumption (VO2) of 11 participants with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05 (CCS compared with CG).
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

Although there were studies reporting the positive influence of the CG application on the physiological responses and subsequent cycling performance during short-term high-intensity exercise,37 very few studies among them reported the significant impacts of the CG on VO2 and HR. Because the present study yielded low VO2 and HR, it could be deduced that the CCS induced the redistribution of blood from the superficial to the deeper venous system by improving muscle pumping and pressure values.

Figure 12. Heart rate (HR) of 11 participants with two garments during cycling. *P<0.05 (CCS compared with CG). [AQ33]
CCS: compression cycling skinsuit; CG: compression garment.

In addition to the improved venous return, the energy saving could be achieved by preventing the excessive muscle vibration during cycling. According to previous studies, the increased muscle vibration during the intense exercise required more rigorous cardiorespiratory and metabolic outputs38,39 whereas the kinesio tape and a lower-body CG reduced the energy consumption by limiting the muscle activation and vibration.29,40 HR and energy consumption were highly correlated. Thus, the additional pressure values applied on the thigh muscles by the CCS’s stripes simulating kinesio tape might have reduced the muscle vibration and energy consumption by enhancing the effectiveness of the muscles’ activities during cycling, in particular high-workload cycling. The significant effects of the CCS on HR were found during high workload at 60 rpm, 80 rpm and 100 rpm cadences, but not at 120 rpm. HR of the CCS was 3% lower than that of the CG during the high-workload cycling. This was in line with a previous study which found that the CG with a medium pressure range (20–40 mmHg) was found to reduce the muscle vibration by 20–25.5% during short-term skiing.40 There was no significant difference found on HR induced by a cycling combination of high workload at the highest cadence of 120 rpm. It might have been that too-strenuous muscle vibration hindered the impact of the CCS’s pressure on physiological responses during the highworkload and high-cadence cycling.

The CCS induced better venous return and less muscle vibration due to effectively higher compression power. The potential limitation of this study is the CCS’s effect on the long-term endurance cycling performance with different workloads and cadences was not investigated. In conclusion, the newly designed CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape was effective in energy conservation during short-term cycling especially for high-workload cycling in comparison with the conventional CG, which supported H3. Further study is required to investigate the direct relationship between pressure values and the physiological responses during cycling with different workloads and cadences.

Conclusion

This study shed light on the influence of the CG with stripes simulating kinesio tape on the compression and the physiological responses at different workloads and cadences during cycling. The CCS reduced energy consumption during cycling due to the effective compression power. There were significant differences in VO2 and HR during short-term cycling combinations with different workloads and cadences. The CCS facilitated venous return improvements and muscle vibration attenuation by providing appropriate compression power while positively impacting on the physiological parameters (VO2 and HR). Thus, the CCS could be useful especially for the sprint (track cycling) where the cyclists are required to accelerate quickly to a high speed, and the experiment protocol of this study could be used for cycling training and competition.

In conclusion, the newly designed CCS with stripes simulating kinesio tape was effective in energy conservation during short-term cycling in comparison with the conventional CG. Therefore, the CCS design principle and performance assessment protocol introduced in this study could be applied to performance compression sportswear development, in particular for highintensity training.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Mr. Man Cheung, Mr. Pat Wan, Dr. Nemo Mo, and the participants for their kind support for this project.

Declaration of conflicting interests

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Funding

The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This project was funded by the Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

ORCID iDs

Kristina Shin https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9696-002X
Jiao Jiao https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2705-6157

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